The Eyjafjallajökull Volcano is an ice-covered stratovolcano located in Iceland, which last erupted in 2010. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano, one of the oldest active volcanoes in Iceland, is located in the volcanic flank zone of South Iceland, a few tens of kilometers off the nearest branch of the mid-Atlantic plate boundary. Plate Boundaries - The Different Types of Plate Boundaries - GCSE Geography - Duration: 2:33. Eyjafjallajokull is located in Iceland on the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge which separates the North American and Eurasian plates. But lies within a series of high rising volcanoes that’s influenced by a secondary rift zone (REF). This formed a 5 to 10 km high plume that changed between a steam rich white ash cloud or a dark grey cloud that’s loaded with more ash than steam (Gudmundsson et al., 2012). The magma production from the volcano changed from relatively low output to high discharge at times, with around 8 million tonnes of fine volcanic particles being ejected into the air (Carlsen et al., 2012). Others are located off the boundary, in the so called flank zones (e.g. Jun 2010, 07:40. During the 1996 swarm it indicates that tension was building suggesting magma was intruding up into the base of the crust, however no uplift was recorded (Hjaltadóttir et al., 2015). The volcano went through a small subglacial stage when the eruption melted through the glacier of 200m of ice which took 3 to 4 hours (Gudmundsson et al., 2012) and this created large amounts of meltwater that caused flooding nearby . The only well documented historical eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, 1821-1823, was followed by a moderately small eruption of Katla in 1823. Saemundsson, 1978), and their activity is only affected slightly by the plate movements. Iceland rests along the Mid Atlantic Ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. However other hazards were recorded further away from the eruption caused by ashfall from the volcano. However, the Eyjafjallajökull eruption highlighted problems in this system and the need for it to be globally implemented across the globe. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this dissertation and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! These all partly contributed to the changes of the accumulated volume being estimated wrong, as well due to solidification and magma cooling (Hjaltadóttir et al., 2015). First, the island is located directly over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, or the boundary between the North American tectonic plate to the west and the Eurasian tectonic plate to the east. 'glacier of the mountains of the islands') is one of the smaller ice caps of Iceland, north of Skógar and west of Mýrdalsjökull. Starting in the Arctic Ocean, it goes all the way to nearby the southern tip of Africa. 0 0 The island has 30 active volcanic systems, of which 13 have erupted since thesettlement of Iceland in AD 874. The Volcano is around an area of high volcanism where a Rift zone is located on the south of Iceland on the boundary between the North American Plate and Eurasian Plate. This produces basaltic volcanoes when an eruption occurs above the surface (Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland) and characteristic basalt “pillow lava” in underwater eruptions. 21 March 2010. How far did the volcanic ash cloud from the eruption travel? This inspection of the earthquake revealed that there was a small net volume of magma from the shallow depth of the mantle. Interactions of tectonic plates are believed to be the main reason of most earthquakes and volcanic activity on the Earth. This is done by looking at details of eruptions and see the causes and impacts they caused. Eyjafjallajökull is a stratovolcano. The British Geological Survey and the Icelandic Met Office have installed new seismic stations on the Eyjafjallajökull volcano as well as the Katla Volcano. This volcano (pronounced as ay-yah-fyah-lah-yoh-kuul ) is located on a spreading ridge in Iceland. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. In the case of this volcano the volcano was given a red alert however this was relatively late and only applied at the sixth change of alert (Sammonds, P., McGuire, B., Edwards, 2011). VAT Registration No: 842417633. Seismic activity from 1991 to 2008 and GPS data from 1992 to May 2009 shows major magma movements below the volcano. In 1994 the volcano began to show minimal signs of activity, with the model for the 1994 activity indicating the intruded volume to of been three times smaller at 0.011km3 than during the 1999 phrase. However, the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano is situated just beyond the propagating rift of plate spreading in Iceland. Aviation Colour Code used by the USGS Volcano Observatories. The continents are stuck on tectonic plates and move along with them. This is not an example of the work produced by our Dissertation Writing Service. A 100-200 m thick glacier covers the upper part of the volcano and its elliptical 2.5-km-wide summit crater or caldera. As small as a 2gm-3 of ash ingested in the engine can cause loss of power and near crashes (Sammonds, P., McGuire, B., Edwards, 2011). The volcano however had a steam plume that occurred for months after the eruption had stopped located at the crater on summit (Gudmundsson et al., 2012). The Eyjafjallajökull volcano, one of the oldest active volcanoes in Iceland, is located in the volcanic flank zone of South Iceland, a few tens of kilometers off the nearest branch of the mid-Atlantic plate boundary. The volcanic edifice is an elongated, flat cone of about 1650 m height. Pressure perturbation in the mantle may also affect the magma sources of both volcanoes. BGS scientists respond to volcanic eruptions and contribute to the Scientific Advisory Group in Emergencies (SAGE). Examples of these are Eyjafjallajökull The volcano in Iceland makes up a series of many active volcanoes in the country. Plate Tectonics. Iceland has a high concentration of active volcanoes due to its location on the mid-Atlantic Ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary, and also due to its location over a hot spot. It is a relatively small volcano, and is located W of Katla volcano. The volcano itself has a large ridge shape that’s in a lengthened east west direction (Jónsson, 1988). Then again in 1612 when a possible summit eruption arose (Jónsson, 1774; Larsen et al., 1999), and then in again 1821 when the volcano last erupted before 2010 eruption (Thoroddsen, 1925). The immediate build up to the eruption started in January with an increased activity of phrases of seismic Earthquakes as well as volcano uplifting suggesting magma movement towards the surface (Hjaltadóttir et al., 2015). From the 18th to the 22nd May the eruption declined until it eventually stopped. As these two plates move apart, magma continually wells up along the ridge, creating new sea floor. The EVZ and the WVZ are connected by the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ). Some of these hazards were tackled by the public health authorities by providing facial masks and glasses for eye protection (Carlsen et al., 2012). Stratovolcano ; Is a fissure and explosive eruption. It is situated on the mid-Atlantic ridge, between the Eurasian and north American plate.It is a constructive plate boundary. A tectonic plate floats loose from other tectonic plates but comes close to them and interacts with them where their edges meet, like underneath Iceland. Iceland rests along the Mid Atlantic Ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. The low amount of eruptions can show the volcano to be quite inactive for this area as in the same time the nearby Katla volcano had 21 confirmed eruptions in the same amount of time (Larsen, 2000). Here, convection currents are driving apart the North American plate (moving West) and the Eurasian Plate (moving East) along a constructive plate boundary. Reference this. These volcanic signs can indicate the reawakening of volcanoes, however these short term eruptions may be underestimated and difficult to prepare for (Sigmundsson et al., 2010). *You can also browse our support articles here >, Deformation was rapid with reduction of 0.5mm per day after 4, Intense Activity was recorded and uplift of volcano, Second eruption at the summit. 1994; Sella et al. Magma discharged reduced, with a less silica melt composition. The Volcano received a large media response and was categorized as a VEI of 4 on the Volcano Explosivity Index (Sammonds, P., McGuire, B., Edwards, 2011). Free resources to assist you with your university studies! … The volcanoes of Iceland include a high concentration of active ones due to Iceland's location on the mid-Atlantic Ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary, and its location over a hot spot.The island has 30 active volcanic systems, of which 13 have erupted since the settlement of Iceland in AD 874.. Of these 30 active volcanic systems, the most active/volatile is Grímsvötn. Lava effused out in a 3km long lava flow which made its way northwards out of the caldera down the Gı´gjo¨kull glacier (Gudmundsson et al., 2012). The E-W orientation of the rift zone suggests a tectonic control of a regional stress field with the least compressive stress oriented N-S. The coupling mechanism between the volcanoes remains enigmatic. In the past, the UK has been affected by volcanic eruptions in Iceland, the most notable being the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grímsvötn eruptions, which resulted in disruption of air traffic in the North Atlantic and Europe. Plans to mitigate the effects of eruptions on air traffic have been attempted by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) that use advice from the World Meteorological Organisation to keep Aircraft away from ash clouds by advising international airlines of ash clouds (Sammonds, P., McGuire, B., Edwards, 2011). The explosive action was relatively week but produced 2 to 4km high plumes. The behaviour of the volcanic cloud was observed using a C-band weather radar located at the Keflavik international airport that is situated 150km west of the volcano (Icelandic Met Office, 2018). 8145 TECTONOPHYSICS / Physics of magma and magma bodies; 8414 VOLCANOLOGY / Eruption mechanisms and flow emplacement; 8434 VOLCANOLOGY / Magma migration and fragmentation; 8439 VOLCANOLOGY / Physics and chemistry of magma bodies. Spain France England Iceland Greenland Canada USA African Continent . However, the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano is situated just beyond the propagating rift of plate spreading in Iceland. This change may be related to a southward propagation of the Eastern Rift Zone of Iceland and the transfer of spreading from the Western Rift Zone. No plagiarism, guaranteed! Along with seismic activity in the upper and intermediate crust. Eyjafjallajökull … The diverging Eurasian and North American plates caused the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (in 2010) and Bardarbunga (in 2014). The divergent boundary, called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, that runs through the center of Iceland occurs because two plates, the North American Plate and the Eurasian Plate, are pulling away from each other. 2:33. Iceland lies on the Mid Atlantic Ridge, a constructive plate margin seperating the North American plate and the Eurasian plate. Its peak is at a total height of 1651 metres, where there is a 2.5km wide Caldera (‘Global Volcanism Program’, 2018). Das Foto zeigt die beiden Ausbruchstellen, Eyjafjallajökull die am 14 April 2010 ausbrachen und Fimmvörðuháls vom 20 März bis 12 April 2010. This aviation colour code is shown in figure 2 and shows the amount of activity and ash generation is occurring at a volcano. Plate Tectonics explains what happens as the North American and Eurasian Plates pull away from each other; new crust is formed from erupted magma along either side of the ridge. This underlying geological landscape makes up one of the most active volcanic islands in the world. The data shows a pipe like structure northeast of the summit crater, this shows the path of the magma from the base of the crust to the upper crust and into an intrusion (Hjaltadóttir et al., 2015). Mixing of lava types (rhyolitic and basaltic). This period of unrest lasted for 16 years until the volcano finally blew in 2010. Iceland is located on the North American plate (Moving West) and the Eurasian plate (Moving East), creating a divergent plate boundary which move apart at 1-5cm every year.•. However, the volcanic ash cloud affects were affected greatly by the weather as the prevailing winds, caused large dispersion to the south and south-East of the Volcano. The volcano is on the island of Iceland, which is part of Europe and situated immediately South of the Arctic Circle.•. At the time of writing (September 2010), there is no indication of unusual activity at Katla following the intrusive and extrusive activity of Eyjafjallajökull in 2009-2010. Eyjafjallajokull is located in Iceland on the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge which separates the North American and Eurasian plates. Their magmatic sources, however, appear to be chemically separated in spite of apparent sympathetic behaviour of the two volcanoes. This caused a mix of magma and ice which causes the explosivity of a volcano to increase in intensity (Sammonds, P., McGuire, B., Edwards, 2011). These includes flooding, health effects and disruption to air traffic. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. The summit explosion of trachyandesite caused an exceptional disruption to air traffic across Europe with much of the airspace being closed for several days (Sigmundsson et al., 2010). Eyjafjallajøkull volcano (Iceland): low activity resumes. Signs of unrest and a possible eruption occurring, or last eruptive activity has reduced but it closely monitored for possible new explosive activity. 16th Dec 2019 The area including Eyjafjallajökull and Katla is outlined with a box. The impacts of flooding however were minimal as there is a relatively low population in that area (REF). This means each eruption that occurs can be monitored and research with this being used to predict future eruptions. It is an elongated, broad cone of about 1650 m height. The collision of tectonic plates can result in earthquakes, volcanoes, the formation of mountains, and other geological events. Discharged increased again, Eruption declined until it eventually stopped, More explosions however they had a small amount of magma. (or is it just me...), Smithsonian Privacy In this way, as the plates move further apart new ocean lithosphere is formed at the ridge and the ocean basin gets wider. The Icelandic Met Office were responsible for monitoring the volcano using many geophysical sensors including seismic, strain and GPS. However, it can be challenging whether a volcano is emitting ash particularly if the volcano is remote (Webley & Mastin, 2009). This story map was created with the Story Map Journal application in ArcGIS Online. Timeline of the eruption on Eyjafjallajökull: March - April 2010. Of course, divergent plate boundaries also exist on land. Iceland is on a type of tectonic plate boundary called a divergent boundary. This swarm activity occurred in different places across the volcano in the 1994 and 1999-2000, crustal deformation arose on the south eastern flank of the volcano. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano, one of the oldest active volcanoes in Iceland, is located in the volcanic flank zone of South Iceland, a few tens of kilometers off the nearest branch of the mid-Atlantic plate boundary. The divergent plate boundary between North America and Eurasia has a relative motion of approximately 18–20 mm yr −1 in a direction of 102–104° E of N (DeMets et al. Sill intrusion beneath Eyjafjallajökull in 1999 was followed by a magmatic event at Katla, most likely a small subglacial eruption and a period of slow inflation 1999-2004. Agricultural land was damaged, and farms were hit by heavy ash fall. An E-W trending rift zone transects the volcano, most eruptive fissures and crater rows trend E-W, but occasional radial fissures are observed around the summit area. Following the last eruption in 1821 the volcano had 170 years of dormancy which is normal for this volcano as its usual for it to have low levels of activity with it staying relatively quiet between its intrusion and eruption phases (Soosalu et al., 2006; Jónsdóttir et al., 2007; Jakobsdóttir, 2008). Volcanoes can be monitored using varies techniques to estimate when an eruption will occur and what hazards it will present. When this occurs, the Icelandic land mass is going to separate, with water from the Atlantic Ocean filling in this widening gap and splitting the country in two. The eruption in Iceland caused many effects that affected people nationally and internationally from primary and secondary hazards. This movement was first recorded in 1994 when a period of seismic observations was recorded by seismic and geodetic measurements. On the 18th April a change occurred that was a lower discharge phrase this lasted to the 4th May, the melt composition was less silicic than before as it reduced from around 60% to 58% and the magma discharge also dropped (Ref). From the 14th to 18th April the volcano began its first explosive phrase of magma discharge from a water filled vent. (c) NASA Earth Observatory. Past eruptions such as the 2010 eruption and other volcanic explosions before that can be used to guide future preparation methods. A 100-200 m thick glacier covers the upper part of the volcano and its elliptical 2.5-km-wide summit crater or caldera. This may be improved in the future by organisations from across Europe working together to monitor the volcano. Increased unrest and more risk of eruption, or eruption is occurring, but violent explosive activity has no slowed or stopped. Iceland Greenland Eyjafjallajokull volcano ASH CLOUD! We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKDiss.com purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on Reviews.io. This therefore closing European air space for several days (Carlsen et al., 2012). The second eruption occurred on the summit of the volcano and started at 3.30pm on 14th April 2010. Where is the Eyjafjallajökull volcano? Many of its slopes have been eroded down by the glaciers and rivers that run down from the ice sheet that peaks the volcano (REF). The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative However, the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano is situated just beyond the propagating rift of plate spreading in Iceland. As for moderately active volcanoes such as the Eyjafjallajökull volcano less is known about the deformation of these types of volcanoes (Sigmundsson et al., 2010). Figure 1: Distribution of Ash across Europe that caused international attention due to this major secondary impact of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption to the aerospace industry. Located on the Island of Iceland In the Atlantic Ocean Remember these headings in the News? These monitoring operations assigns different warning levels to the aircraft industry when a volcano has been detected ejecting ash. This give a certain level of warning to aviation companies and allow them to take an action needed (Gardner, 2006). However, this was still not successful enough in warning airlines of the possible threat. These floods were known as the jo¨kulhlaups or glacial outburst floods that occurred on the 14th and 15th of April (Gudmundsson et al., 2012). (British Geological Survey (BGS) | A world-leading geoscience centre, 2018). This will enable hazards to be kept to a minimum and reduce loss of life, health issues, economic damage and social disruption. As the ash can cause high damage to airframes, avionics and engines of civil jet aircraft. The strong influence of the topography suggests, however, that this intraplate stress field is weak. Melt composition from Benmoreite to Trachyte. Dissertation Eyafjallajokull's eruption might not yet have ended or be ending yet. Furthermore, stress induced in the crust by the activity of one volcano may affect the magmatic system of the other. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted in 920, 1612 and again from 1821 to 1823 when it caused a glacial lake outburst flood (or jökulhlaup). •Lies on the Mid Atlantic Ridge (highly volatile boundary between Eurasion and North American tectonic plates). From the 5th to 17th May the volcano became even more explosive, with the melt composition from Benmoreite to Trachyte. This was an outcome of the eruption arising within an ice capped caldera. Case study - eruption in a developed country: Eyjafjallajökull Iceland has several volcanoes and is situated on two tectonic plates – the North American plate and Eurasian plate. Convection currents are driving apart the North American plate and the Eurasian plate. First, find Iceland on the map. Eruption not occurring, either as normal background state or an eruption has stopped from a recent eruptive period. The deformation in this instance was rapid before the first eruption when it reduced 0.5mm per day after the 4th March. The volume of intruded magma was underestimated, as well as the mass loading effects within the crust this was caused by the intruded magma and degassing of CO2. Located on a constructive plate margin. This caused short term problems being reported such as causing Asthma Attacks, increase irritation to respirate and skin and eye irritation (Carlsen et al., 2012). Plate Boundaries; Volcanoes. This phrase of the eruption being very violent for the size of the volcano was a result of the volcano being a Phreatomagmatic Eruption. As with other divergent boundaries, eventually a rift forms. Started: April 14th, 2010 Ended: June 23rd, 2010 . The ice cap covers the caldera of a volcano with a summit elevation of 1,651 metres (5,417 ft). the volcanic systems are located at the plate boundary and their activity is heavily influenced by the tectonic movements. Other examination from the Global Positioning System GPS revealed that a 0.05km3 magmatic intrusion grew within 3 months (REF). Also, the deformation was unusual as it was not related to the magma chamber pressure these highlight why mistakes were made (Sigmundsson et al., 2010). The plate boundary is a Divergent boundary where the North American and Eurasian plates that move away from each other. Shortly before midnight on March 21st, a 500-600 m long fissure stretching north east to south west opened up on the north-eastern flank of Eyjafjallajokull on the ice-free Fimmvorduhals ridge, which divides this icecap from Myrdalsjokull its 560 km² neighbour to the east. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. Agreement NNX16AC86A, Is ADS down? The Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system is one of over 30 presently active volcanic systems in Iceland (Figure 1). The eastern rift of Eyjafjallajökull extends into the western flank of Katla and the distance between the two volcanic centers is only 25 km. These occurred in the 10th century when a flank eruption occurred (Óskarsson, 2009). 2012). Explosivity increased from the Phreatomagmatic Eruption from a mixing of water and lava, Intense earthquake swarm that lasted three hours, First explosive phrase of magma discharge. These eruptions were preceded by significant rifting and cracking on the ground surface, which are also emblematic of diverging plate movement. What plate boundary goes through Iceland? Magma chamber movement can provide signs of eruptions that are going to occur (Sigmundsson et al., 2010). Company Registration No: 4964706. The plate boundary is a Divergent boundary where the North American and Eurasian plates that move away from each other. From underwater volcanoes and from a mantle plume that lies underneath the area. Areas were flooded because of the glacier melt water which lay above the volcano. You can view samples of our professional work here. A convergent plate boundary is a location where two tectonic plates are moving toward each other, often causing one plate to slide below the other (in a process known as subduction). Eyjafjallajokull is located below a glacier. This developed into an official eruption that started on the 20th March and lasted around 6 weeks (REF). Starting in the Arctic Ocean, it goes all the way to nearby the southern tip of Africa. But the magma tended to be from more of a considerable depth (Sigmundsson et al., 2010). The eruption caused major disruption in the country as well as across the world. However this may or may not be directly be related to the region being by an Ash Cloud (Carlsen et al., 2012). Although the 1,666-m-high volcano has erupted during historical time, it has been less active than other volcanoes of Iceland's eastern volcanic zone, and relatively few Holocene lava flows are known. Fissure-fed lava flows occur on both the E and W flanks of the volcano, but are more prominent on the W side. plate boundary, such as the Askja and Kverkfjöll fis- sure swarms in the Northern V olcanic Zone (Figure 1) contain long normal faults and open fissures, in ad- Tours to Iceland; Nachrichten zum Eyjafjallajökull: Mi, 9. Abstract — The Eyjafjallajökull volcano, one of the oldest active volcanoes in Iceland, is located in the vol- canic flank zone of South Iceland, a few tens of kilometers south of the nearest branch of the mid-Atlantic plate boundary. As well a contraction from 2000 to 2009 was recorded at the southern flank at a volume of 0.0015 ± 0.0003 km3/year at 5.5 ± 2.0 km in depth(Hjaltadóttir et al., 2015). Nnx16Ac86A, is ADS down be used to predict future eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull extends into atmosphere... Water filled vent fixed depth of 5km tectonic plate boundary were recorded further from. 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