0000038528 00000 n The fertile lemma is 2.5–3.5 mm. Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada southwards into the United States and Mexico.Switchgrass is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie and can be found in remnant prairies, in native grass pastures, and naturalized along roadsides. 0000001878 00000 n 0000466432 00000 n Potassium, a critical element involved in enzyme activation, protein synthesis, stomatal regulation, plant–water relations, and cation–anion balance in the plant [ 14 ] can affect crop growth when it is deficient. Switchgrass will benefit from burning of plant residues just prior to initiation of spring growth. leaves turn to golden in autumn, Flowers have a well-developed panicle, often up to 60 cm long, and it bears a good crop of seeds, Beautiful reddish-purple seed head atop glossy leaves, 3–6 mm long and up to 1.5 mm wide, and are developed from a single-flowered spikelet, Pink or dull-purple tinge, and turn golden brown with the foliage of the plant, Spermatophytina  (spermatophytes, seed plants, phanérogames), Lilianae  (monocots, monocotyledons, monocotyledons), Panicum virgatum L. var. Switchgrass is a tall-growing, warm-season, perennial grass that is native to much of the United States including Virginia. Switchgrass may also be a more economically advantageous choice for some dairy farmers. Switchgrass offers a wide range of environmental benefits as an alternative energy crop. 0000025826 00000 n An annual cutting in fall or winter suffices for biomass production since its value is based on total tonnage, not nutritional quality. Switchgrass used for wildlife food and cover should be burned once every 3 to 4 years to reduce mulch accumulations that year, cut date and fertiliser tr eatment on the variability of switchgrass yield, nutritional value and mineral composition. Switchgrass pasture needs careful management and must be grazed before seedstalks develop. If you are not convinced, take our “Dare to Compare” challenge and plant Real World switchgrass next to other commonly planted switchgrass varieties and see the difference for yourself. Each spikelet has 2 glumes, 2 lemmas (one fertile and the other sterile), a palea, and a perfect floret. They are usually medium green (less often light blue and glaucous), hairless to mostly hairless, and either flat or slightly indented along their mid veins. St. Petersburg, Russian Federation December 2, 2020. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); POLICY During spring 2013, in two switchgrass pure stands (varieties Alamo and Blackwell, respectively), alfalfa was established through direct seeding implementing a split-plot experimental design. The upright clumps grow 4-5 feet tall and 1½-2 feet wide. Switchgrass cultivars are highly variable, and agronomic research, and perhaps genetic engineering, to develop improved varieties can assist stand establishment, productivity and decrease unwanted nutritional toxins that impact grazing and decrease unwanted combustion products. Switch grass is excellent forage for cattle; however, it has shown toxicity in horses, sheep, and goats. Switchgrass silage benefitted most from addition of alfalfa, urea and plantain. In the East, it performs well on shallow and droughty soils. 0000494416 00000 n Forage nutritive value was measured using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. 150. 0000031767 00000 n [21] also found that switchgrass production reduced soil erosion and nutrient loss. Switchgrass has so far been bred primarily as a forage crop with a target to enhance its nutritional value [46]. Th ere have been few evaluations of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars under multiple harvest managements in the northeastern United States. 0000024781 00000 n It is broader toward the bottom than the top and pyramidal in outline. ... supports investments in research in the areas of human nutrition and health and sustainable dairy production. 0 Rachis, lateral branches, branchlets, and pedicels are light green (rarely light blue and glaucous), glabrous, and slender. 0000491272 00000 n Switchgrass was harvested after a killing frost (the first or second week of November each year) to determine yield. Switch grass uses C4 carbon fixation, giving it an advantage in conditions of drought and high temperature. 0000042126 00000 n The warm-season grasses are grazed for 10-14 days when switchgrass and big bluestem are still leafy (10-20” tall). 0000002471 00000 n It is more drought tolerant than many cultivars. At a minimum, they will have to pay at least its value as livestock feed, which is expected to be about $95 per ton of DM (equivalent to $83 per ton of 15%-moisture hay). 0000494169 00000 n 0000003526 00000 n Harvesting this crop in August can improve habitat for grassland birds. Milium virgatum var. click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Panicum thumbnails at the Plants Gallery Robert H. Mohlenbrock. However, these grasses can complement cool-season pastures if managed properly. 0000025974 00000 n virgatum (switchgrass). It does poorly on some heavy soils. 103 0 obj<>stream They are open at their apices, forming a V-shape. Seeds are a food source for birds in winter. Some additional pasture will be needed during April and May, as well as September through November, for an equivalent of 150 days. thyrsiforme H.P.Linder. We do not yet know what refineries will pay for switchgrass as cellulosic feedstock. The company uses a large tub grinder to reduce the grass stems to a consistent length for feeding into the boiler with maximum efficiency. defoliation on switchgrass responses. It would also have low levels of lignin, a material found inside plants that prevents maximum ethanol production. The researchers harvested switchgrass from five CRP fields in southern Wisconsin in August, 1996. Beginning in April 2008, we will evaluate the utilization and value of switchgrass for stocker cattle. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a native warm‐season perennial grass, is efficient at converting mineral nutrients to harvestable plant tissue with low nutrient removal rates (Vogel et al., 2002); however, scant data exists on optimum P and K applications under multiple forage harvests per annum. Thus, it has been managed primarily as a hay crop for which high leaf to stem ratio and high nutrient content are important. It may flop in overly rich soils. Burning fields once every 3 to 5 years decreases weed competition, eliminates excessive residue and stimulates switch grass growth. SWITCHGRASS Panicum virgatum L. Plant Symbol = PAVI2 Contributed by: USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program Uses Livestock: Switchgrass is noted for its heavy growth during late spring and early summer. The monoculture stands of grass that FDC manages are baled and then stored under cover. 0000002193 00000 n Yields of 2-5 tons per acre can be expect- ed, depending on rainfall and soil type, as well as other environmental conditions. The ideal switchgrass wouldn’t possess one trait, but many. It can be used as an energy substitute and is often considered a good candidate for bio-fuel, especially ethanol fuel production, due to its hardiness against poor soil and climate conditions, rapid growth and low fertilization and herbicide requirements. To date switchgrass has been bred primarily to enhance its nutritional value as a forage crop for livestock (Vogel et al. The seeds are 3–6 mm long and up to 1.5 mm wide, and are developed from a single-flowered spikelet. Market Value of Switchgrass. It is a 5 foot tall selection originally found in Dallas and introduced by Change of Scenery Nursery in Columbus, Ohio. “A guy who’s raising cattle Burning fields once every 3 to 5 years decreases weed competition, eliminates excessive residue and stimulates switch grass growth. They are straight, slightly curved, or slightly wiry. 0000459832 00000 n https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=40913#null, https://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/2634/, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=26657, https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Panicum+virgatum, https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=l460, https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=PAVIV, http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-430831, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panicum_virgatum, https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/panvir/all.html. Burning switchgrass together with coal can generate electricity with lower emissions than coal alone. Some commonly available ornamental cultivars include: It is up to 8 feet tall in flower, with blue-green leaves selected by Crystal Palace Perennials of Illinois. The leaves are wider than many other cultivars, and plants have a fuller shape and denser flower spikes that appear in distinct layers. 0000477452 00000 n The grass's upright growth pattern places its growing point off the soil surface onto its stem, so leaving 25 cm of stubble is important for regrowth. The compact plants are only about three feet tall, with taller flower spikes with strong pink tones, and dark burgundy seeds. Data on switchgrass production on marginal sites are limited. Switchgrass produces high amounts of biomass that can be used for solid biofuel production. 0000041883 00000 n It is discovered growing wild in a Wisconsin meadow, it is one of the bluest selections (but not as sturdy as some so may flop more in wet conditions) that grows 4-5 feet tall, with silvery inflorescences. 0000490833 00000 n Research in Tennessee has shown that, if grown exclusively for hay, 4-5 tons per acre are not uncommon. Year , fertiliser treatment and cut date were considered fixed e ff ects. They were replaced by cool-s… Switchgrass was seeded in 2010 at 30 PLS ft 2 using a no-till drill and seeded at 6-, 12-, 18-, 24-, 30-, and 36-inch row spacings (Figure 1). The plant has deep rhizomatous and fibrous root system nearly as deep as the plant is tall. With proper management a Switchgrass pasture can produce between 3,000 and 4,000 pounds of forage per acre or higher. In June 2010 we published an Ag News & Views article entitled Nutrient Requirements for Switchgrass Production. Switch grass is both a perennial and self-seeding crop, which means farmers do not have to plant and reseed after annual harvesting. 0000034593 00000 n “Witchgrass” switchgrass facts Switchgrass is one of many “energy crops”—plants that can be grown specifically to be harvested and converted into biofuel at a biorefinery. Ligules have bands of white hairs, while the nodes are swollen and often dark-colored. The urea+plantain combinations resulted in the highest lactate values and lowest pH values (4.2-4.4) for switchgrass. Switchgrass May Mean Better Soil Date: July 25, 2008 Source: USDA/Agricultural Research Service Summary: Soils with native grasses such as switchgrass have … Finite nutrients, such as P and K are assumedly remobilized post-senescence in herbaceous feedstocks like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a function of environmental signaling and genotype. Erosion Control: Switchgrass is perhaps our most valuable native grass on a wide range of sites. 0000000016 00000 n Switchgrass is an attractive biofuel feedstock because it can grow on marginal lands of little agricultural value. 0000027948 00000 n 0000465600 00000 n It provides good warm-season pasture and high quality hay for livestock. Several alternate leaves occur along the entire length of each culm. Switchgrass. 0000478738 00000 n m-3. glauciphyllum Cassidy, Panicum virgatum var. Previous research has shown that switchgrass biomass yields respond to nitrogen fertilizer rates of up to 168 kg/ha, depending on ecotype and location (Guretzky, Biermacher, Cook, Kering, & Mosali, 2011; Muir, Sanderson, Ocumpaugh, Jones, & Reed, 2001; Sanderson, Read, & Reed, 1999). Isolate NC01 had the highest germination rate with 99.95% and MS0911 had the lowest with 96.73% (data not shown). King et al. bag that plants 2-3 Acres and is also available in a … long, light green to reddish green (rarely light blue and glaucous), lanceoloid in shape, and glabrous. %PDF-1.4 %���� At a minimum, they will have to pay at least its value as livestock feed, which is expected to be about $95 per ton of DM (equivalent to $83 per ton of 15%-moisture hay). Switchgrass. As forage, Switchgrass provides excellent feed for livestock and other animals. It is a German selection that grows 3½-4 feet tall and has red leaf tips early in the growing season and burgundy fall foliage color with burgundy seed heads. Sudangrass Sudangrass averages 11.6 percent crude protein. In these studies, the first grazing of warm-season grasses occurs in early June, two to three weeks earlier than the normal late June/early July start date. Although regular grass provides nutrition and fiber to livestock and other animals, the high cellulose content is difficult for digestion by humans and, as a result, provides very few nutrients. 0000002995 00000 n x�b```f``-a`c`Pef@ a�;�& �M�C�V���@��И�/p��G�Et.4�w��Vј��K�bBRk��@�7'F�V!�Ngv!����N"jՊ3��]=%�qI5�A��Qn E���M���uy�XU\ʙL��)��Y�})�a��\�*� u��KZZFG��(���� a���JBC#:�. It is also tolerant to wet areas. Skype: healthbenefit55. glaucephyllum Cassidy, Panicum virgatum var. Once established, switch grass stand can survive for ten years or longer. May flop in overly rich soils, About 2.7 m (8 ft. 10 in) high, but is typically shorter than big bluestem grass or Indian grass, Deep rhizomatous and fibrous root system nearly as deep as the plant is tall, Light to medium green (less often light blue and glaucous), terete, glabrous, and fairly stout, Round and can have a red to straw colored tint, 30–90 cm (12–35 in) long, with a prominent midrib. Even as a monoculture, it is better suited than annual grain crops to provide cover, forage, and nesting areas for native species. USDA SCS. Switch grass is a hardy, deep-rooted, clump forming, warm season, perennial, rhizomatous bunchgrass that grows about 2.7 m (8 ft. 10 in) high, but is typically shorter than big bluestem grass or Indian grass. When ripe, the seeds sometimes take on a pink or dull-purple tinge, and turn golden brown with the foliage of the plant in the fall. It is from Amber Wave Gardens, Benton Harbor, Michigan has green foliage that turns shades of deep red in early summer. Switchgrass, as noted above, can provide forage for one AU for 90 days from 0.45 acre (2.2 AU per acre). This plant is one of the more dominant species of the tallgrass prairie, but it is found all over North America growing along moist roadsides, streambanks, and woodlands. Switchgrass has so far been bred primarily to enhance its nutritional value as a windbreak in crop.... 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