Our initial hypothesis was that the cultivation of switchgrass and mixed grasses would lead to microbial communities more similar to those under prairie species, implying a more sustainable system. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. In most cases, small sample size and high variance precluded detection of statistically significant among treatment differences in lipids characterizing various microbial groups. 4) and for differences in dispersion among factors. Im Anbau liefert die Pflanze durch “Low-Input” Produktion,  Erosionsschutz, Wildschutz und durch die Aufnahme von Schadstoffen weitere wertvolle Beiträge zum Schutz unserer Ressourcen. Chemical attributes of soils from Michigan (MI) and Wisconsin (WI) intensive and extensive sites. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native grass of the United States and is widely adapted to prairie soils, open woods, brackish marshes, and pinewoods openings [23]. Auf dieser Seite können Sie sich genauer über den Anbau, die Ökologie und die Möglichkeiten der Verwertung von Switchgrass informieren. Switchgrass is a warm-season perennial bunchgrass native to much of the United States. All three approaches revealed similar differences among cropping systems in community structure. These primers target a 625 bp fragment of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene in fungi. In the second case, soil type was a stronger predictor of community structure and composition. Box 61 … Biomass and biofuel crop effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services in the North Central US. Influence of corn, switchgrass, and prairie cropping systems on soil microbial communities in the upper Midwest of the United States. 3c) and the AMF/SF ratio was greater (Fig. Fungal species specific to each crop were all saprophytic fungi. 31 talking about this. S2). illinois prairie grass - switchgrass stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. Learn more. 1a). Effects of fertilization, plant species, and intra-specific diversity on soil carbon and nitrogen in biofuel cropping systems after five growing seasons. For the more recently established intensive sites, soil type was more important than plant community in determining microbial community structure, while plant community was the more important driver of soil microbial communities for the older extensive sites where microbial communities under corn were clearly differentiated from those under switchgrass and restored prairie. Bars represent ±1 standard error. 32115 Prairie Lane Winona, MN 55987; 866-417-8156; Email Us; Navigation . Intensive sites were located at the Arlington Agricultural Research Station (AARS) in Wisconsin and at the Kellogg Biological Station (KBS) in Michigan (triangles). Both SSU and LSU primers used were perfect matches to most known strains, so mismatch is not a likely explanation, although other biases have been observed in competitive rRNA gene amplification. Purchase a Gift Certificate . We decided the Poly primers were the current best choice because amplification with the broader coverage Zehr & McReynolds (1989) primers was troublesome, probably because of their high degeneracy. Tilman et al. Soils with higher C and clay contents are often associated with higher microbial biomass because there is more C available for microbial growth (Bach et al., 2010). In contrast, just one or two genera could be found in soils cultivated with switchgrass, with a predominance of Paraglomus. S5). In another experiment, Jangid et al. The grass persists into winter. A similarly low fraction of AMF was observed in the 18S rRNA data. Recognizing that farmers need techniques for soil restoration that are simple and affordable, he developed a gasifier specifically designed for switchgrass, a native prairie grass that is easy to grow. The higher fungal biomass under perennial grasses implies greater potential for C accumulation under these crops (Blanco‐Canqui, 2010) because it is assumed that root production is higher (Zan et al., 2001), soil aggregates form more quickly and to a higher degree (Jastrow, 1987; Jarchow & Liebman, 2012) and that fungi produce C compounds more difficult to degrade (Allison et al., 2005). On the other hand, the higher abundance of Gram‐positive bacteria and actinomycetes under corn indicates a more stressful environment, because these organisms are known for thriving in stressful environments and for producing spores (Yao et al., 2000; Fierer et al., 2003). Three composite samples were taken at random from each of the sampling units. Relative abundances of fungal phyla at extensive sites determined from 28S rRNA gene sequences. The thermal cycler protocol was 95 °C for 3 min, 25 cycles of 95 °C for 30 s, 50 °C for 45 s, and 68 °C for 90 s, and a final 10‐min extension at 68 °C. Wisconsin extensive sites exhibited higher microbial biomass per treatment than corresponding intensive sites, especially for the corn and prairie sites. Geobacter‐like sequences represented 60% of the sequences from Michigan switchgrass samples, while Hyphomicrobium‐like sequences were most abundant in prairie soil from both states. We sampled from three of the five blocks 2 years after their establishment. A native seed mix designed for wetter soils like the Detention Basin Seed Mix would disrupt the function of the ditch - and that would be a good thing! On the other hand, sequence assignment and the identification of indicator organisms were more informative with the NifH sequences, although some horizontal gene transfer may cloud precise taxonomic resolution. A Manual and Software for Common Statistical Methods for Ecological and Biodiversity Studies, Methods of studying soil microbial diversity, Filamentous fungi: the indeterminate lifestyle and microbial ecology, PyroTagger: a fast, accurate pipeline for analysis of rRNA amplicon pyrosequence data, Ecologically meaningful transformations for ordination of species data, Soil microbial communities under model biofuel cropping systems in southern Wisconsin, USA: impact of crop species and soil properties, Accurate, rapid taxonomic classification of fungal large‐subunit rRNA genes, Disclosing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal biodiversity in soil through a land‐use gradient using a pyrosequencing approach, Influence of phylogeny on fungal community assembly and ecosystem functioning, Changes in N‐transforming Archaea and Bacteria in soil during the establishment of bioenergy crops, Impact of different bioenergy crops on N‐cycling bacterial and archaeal communities in soil, Soil properties and spatial processes influence bacterial metacommunities within a grassland restoration experiment, Nitrous oxide emissions during establishment of eight alternative cellulosic bioenergy crops in the North Central United States, Fungal diversity in permafrost and tallgrass prairie soils under experimental warming conditions, Improvement in the RFLP procedure for studying the diversity of, R: A language and environment for statistical computing, labdsv: Ordination and Multivariate Analysis for Ecology, Pyrosequencing enumerates and contrasts soil microbial diversity, Mechanical soil disturbance as a determinant of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in semi‐natural grassland, Mycorrhizal‐mediated nitrogen acquisition in switchgrass under elevated temperatures and N enrichment. S3). Total lipid biomass (a) and total carbon (b) under different biofuel cropping systems at intensive and extensive sites in Wisconsin and Michigan. Previous researchers found Paraglomerales are difficult to detect in roots and soils and that commonly used primers for AMF fail to amplify Paraglomerales sequences (Lumini et al., 2010; Gosling et al., 2014). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to display distances between sites based on their soil attributes. Reads passing the initial filters were frame shift corrected and translated into NifH protein sequences using the RDP FrameBot tool (Wang et al., 2013). To aid interpretation, vectors for the soil variables were added to the PCA plots using vegan's envfit function. Switchgrass is an important prairie grass and a handsome landscaping plant as well, lending a golden color to the autumn landscape. switchgrass (panicum virgatum) in backlight, autumn colouring, north rhine-westphalia, germany - switchgrass stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images . This was especially true among the extensive sites in Wisconsin, which had more time to become established than the intensive sites and had higher C (Fig. The higher number of OTUs observed under prairie may be a consequence of its higher plant diversity, because a greater diversity of plant hosts creates a greater diversity of niches for AMF. Centroids drawn for all treatment combinations (Fig. It’s one of the dominant species of the tallgrass prairie, and can grow up to six feet tall. PCR amplicons were purified using SPRI Beads and quantified using a Qubit fluorometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA, USA). While we could specifically link SSU rRNA gene sequences to crops and soils, and given that these sequences provide better taxonomical resolution, the detection of large numbers of uncultured organisms and taxa with no clearly defined roles limited physiological and functional interpretation. Low variation in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal associations and effects on biomass among switchgrass cultivars. (2013) in that communities under corn were separated from those under perennial grasses by lipids and 16S rRNA gene analysis, respectively. Cropping history shapes fungal, oomycete and nematode communities in arable soils and affects cavity spot in carrot. For the extensive sites, total carbon tended to be higher in the Wisconsin samples for each crop, but the differences were less pronounced and not significant (anova, P = 0.15). In Deutschland ist Switchgrass bisher hauptsächlich als Zierpflanze (Rutenhirse) bekannt. Plant species composition and biofuel yields of conservation grasslands, Changes in soil microbial community structure in a tallgrass prairie chronosequence, A new method for non‐parametric multivariate analysis of variance, Distance‐based tests for homogeneity of multivariate dispersions, Soil texture affects soil microbial and structural recovery during grassland restoration, Fungal‐to‐bacterial ratios in soils investigated for enhanced C sequestration, Energy crops and their implications on soil and environment, Diversity and dynamics of microbial communities in soils from agro‐ecosystems, Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability. Andere Beispiele hierfür sind Hanf, Miscanthus oder Sudangras (Sorghum sudanese) welche, sofern Wirtschaftlichkeit und Vermarktungsmöglichkeit gegeben sind, mittlerweile (wieder) vermehrt angebaut werden. Soil depth and crop determinants of bacterial communities under ten biofuel cropping systems. Indications of shifting microbial communities associated with growing biomass crops on marginal lands in Southern Ontario. Environmental data were not available for sample WIE.Sw.2. Locations of the sampling sites. q cutoff was 0.05. Field‐grown transgenic switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) with altered lignin does not affect soil chemistry, microbiology, and carbon storage potential. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Although such differences were observed for OTUs, interpretation was problematic due to the large number of clusters, most containing few sequences, and due to the poor identification of representative sequences, with many not being identified past the phylum level. Microbial spatial footprint as a driver of soil carbon stabilization. These 187 matches fell into 100 genera. It is most commonly found in prairie lowlands, but will grow under wide range of climatic conditions. Performs well on a wide range of soils. 4a. (2006) also noted that C sequestration was higher under native grassland perennials than under corn, and Bailey et al. Fungi unclassified at the phylum level made up 13% of the sequences. We maintain optimal conditions for seed viability and freshness in our facilities. A Prairie Moon • July 8 Hi Eleni! Because soil microbes drive many of the processes underpinning ecosystem services provided by soils, understanding how cropping systems affect soil microbial communities is important for productive and sustainable management. Chicken Noodle soup has been there through the many days where I needed to feel comfort, warmth and taste something that is familiar. 32115 Prairie Lane Winona, MN 55987; Toll Free / 866-417-8156 Local / 507-452-1362 Email Us; Let's Connect. This is a problem common to many SSU rRNA sequencing studies, especially for environmental samples. (2014) also reported total biomass, and especially AMF biomass, was higher under restored prairie than corn two years after establishment at Wisconsin intensive sites. Biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes ‐ are we asking the right questions? Raw sequences were sorted by bar code, trimmed, filtered to remove sequences of low quality (10% threshold), and aligned. As arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were identified by lipids analysis as an abundant group, we sought to identify fungal sequences belonging to this group in the 28S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data. Detailed amplification and purification protocols are given in Penton et al. Tender young foliage is browsed by deer and livestock and dense upright growth provides winter cover for wildlife. 4a) depict no separation of Michigan samples by crop, but do reveal a separation of Wisconsin samples by crop. Sequencing tags were analyzed using the software tool pyrotagger (Kunin & Hugenholtz, 2010) using a 180 bp sequence length threshold as described in Engelbrektson et al. L. Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada southwards into the United States and Mexico. One of my subscribers suggested that i keep mowing it down an it will die. Scaling 2 depicts higher correlations between variables as smaller angles between vectors. 32115 Prairie Lane Winona, MN 55987; Toll Free / 866-417-8156 Local / 507-452-1362 Email Us; Let's Connect. S7). The differential response to crops observed between intensive and extensive experiments is likely related to the length of time the crops had been grown at the sites. The one exception to this generalization was that the lipid data did reveal a crop effect on microbial community structure for the intensive Wisconsin sites. PCA biplots for the extensive sites based on their soil attributes. We found that only 0.13% of the sequences were classified to Glomeromycota. Our results agree with those of Mao et al. Our main questions were as follows: (i) how do the different biofuel crops affect soil microbial communities, that is, are soil microbial communities under switchgrass and mixed grasses more similar to those under prairie, (ii) how are any effects modified by location and soil type, and (iii) how do alternative soil microbial assay methods compare in revealing community differences? In a more recent study, Gaby & Buckley (2012) reported that no nifH primers were comprehensive for the known nifH genes and that the primers developed by Poly et al. Others includes Blastocladiomycota, Glomeromycota, and Neocallimastigomycota, each <1% of the total sequences in any sample. Of these, Geobacter‐like sequences were present in all samples, but they were especially abundant in Michigan, representing more than 20% of the sequences in soils under prairie, mixed grasses, and switchgrass. Herzberger et al. We assessed the microbial communities using three different methods: lipid analysis, pyrosequencing of ribosomal genes (that target fungi, bacteria, archaea, and lower eukaryotes), and targeted metagenomics of a gene important for a key ecological function, nifH coding for nitrogen reductase (N2 fixation). Table S3. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a summer perennial grass that is native to North America. We characterized and compared soil microbial communities under restored prairie and three potential cellulosic biomass crops (corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie grasses) in two spatial experimental designs – side‐by‐side plots where plant communities were in their second year since establishment (i.e., intensive sites) and regionally distributed fields where plant communities had been in place for at least 10 years (i.e., extensive sites). About 15% of the sequences had frame shift errors detected and corrected by FrameBot, such that more than 99% of the sequences were retained for analysis. THE ROLE OF THE PHYTOMICROBIOME IN MAINTAINING BIOFUEL CROP PRODUCTION IN A CHANGING CLIMATE. Figure S6. Fungi, Metazoa, and Cercozoa were the more abundant eukaryotic phyla at both intensive and extensive sites. 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