The aim of the study was to evaluate the health of the exposed population compared to control population. [76][77] Other notable volcanic eruptions in recent years include the eruption of Mount Pinatubo of 1991 of VEI 6. [citation needed], Samples of volcanic ash collected near the eruption showed a silica concentration of 58%—much higher than in the lava flows. During the initial flank eruption and the main summit eruption that followed, the rate of recorded earthquakes decreased significantly but remained high enough that the main eruption could be predicted and warnings issued. Eruptive products can be split into three categories along with preliminary estimated erupted volumes: Total: 140 million cubic metres (180,000,000 cu yd) which corresponds to some 70–80 million cubic metres (92,000,000–105,000,000 cu yd) of magma. Unlike the earlier eruption phase, the second phase occurred beneath glacial ice. [20] On 23 March, a small vapour explosion took place, when hot magma came into contact with nearby snowdrifts, emitting a vapour plume which reached an altitude of 7 km (4.3 mi), and was detected on radar from the Meteorological Institute of Iceland. The temperature of Hruná river, which flows through the narrow Hrunárgil canyon, into which part of the lava stream was flowing, was recently recorded by geologists to be between 50 and 60 °C (122 and 140 °F), indicating that the river was cooling the lava in that canyon.[37]. Due to the large quantities of dry volcanic ash lying on the ground, surface winds frequently lifted up an "ash mist" that significantly reduced visibility and made web camera observation of the volcano impossible. In the months prior to the the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in southern Iceland, the Icelandic seismic network (SIL) recorded thousands of earthquakes within the volcano. For clarity the small volcanic system Tindfjallajökull is not shown. Near real-time volcanic cloud data. The crater was inactive during the last 187 years. The exposed group reported more symptoms during the last 12 months; morning phlegm in winter, OR 1.5 (95%CI 1.3-1.8) and runny or stuffed nose, OR 1.4 (95%CI 1.2-1.6). In late summer 2009, a subtle shift at a GPS station on the volcano's flank prompted Sigmundsson and his colleagues to begin monitoring the mountain more closely. Disclaimer: the views expressed on this site do not imply endorsement by IAVCEI or its affiliate organizations. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. The participation rate was 72%. The erupting lava cooled very fast, which created a cloud of highly abrasive, glass-rich ash. This summit eruption had a short phreato-magmatic phase in 1821 December which was followed by a year-long period of intermittent magmatic/phreato-magmatic activity and flooding (Larsen et al. Between mid-2000 and 2009, earthquakes occurred intermittently at rates of 1–4 events per month, while deformation remained negligible (Sigmundsson et al., 2010). [62], No human fatalities were reported from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. It was a bit smaller, around 300 m (980 ft) long according to witnesses, and lava coming from it started to flow into Hvannárgil canyon. Image courtesy of James Ashworth. It further indicated that the locations of most of the earthquakes in 2009 occurred between 8 to 12 km (5.0 to 7.5 mi) depth east of the volcano's top crater. Results: Demographic characteristics and underlying disease rates were similar in the two groups. The participation rate was ... GHQ-12) measured psychological morbidity. [12], This volcanic activity so disruptive to air travel because of a combination of factors:[citation needed]. In response to concerns that volcanic ash ejected during the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland would damage aircraft engines, the controlled airspace of many European countries was closed to instrument flight rules traffic, resulting in what at the time was the largest air-traffic shut-down since World War II. The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland on 20 March 2010 affected the economic, political and cultural activities in Europe and across the world.. [66] Smoke and ash from eruptions reduce visibility for visual navigation, and microscopic debris in the ash can sandblast windscreens and melt in the heat of aircraft turbine engines, damaging engines and making them shut down. The molten lava flowed more than 4,000 m (13,000 ft) to the north-east of the fissure and into Hrunagil canyon, forming a lava fall more than 200 m (660 ft) long and slowly approaching Þórsmörk, but had not yet[update] reached the flood plains of Krossá. This second phase erupted trachyandesite. Meltwater started to emanate from the ice cap around 07:00 on 14 April and an eruption plume was observed in the early morning. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. (2010) present geodetic covering the Eyjafjallajökull over its most recent eruption that started with an effusive flank eruption of basalt from 20 March to 12 April 2010. As long as the fissure was not near the glacier, the risk of flooding was minimal; however, the fissure could extend into the ice cap, thereby greatly increasing the risk of flooding. Update on activity in Eyjafjallajökull 2010 Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. Where ash fall was significant, all horses had to be sheltered indoors. A study by the Icelandic Meteorological Office published on December 2009 indicated an increase in seismic activity around the Eyjafjallajökull area during the years 2006–2009. Sign In to Email Alerts with your Email Address, Eyjafjallajökull 2010: Respiratory morbidity and symptoms following exposure to a volcanic eruption, Systemic inflammatory profile associated with exposure time to burning sugarcane, Clinico-radiological and functional assessment of respiratory symptomatics with either exposure to biomass fuel smoke or tobacco smoking, Burnt sugarcane harvesting is associated with short and long term alterations in systemic and pulmonary inflammatory markers, 6.2 Occupational and Environmental Health. [69], At the mouth of the crater, the gases, ejecta, and volcanic plume have created a rare weather phenomenon known as volcanic lightning (or a "dirty thunderstorm"). This indicates that the rate at which magma was flowing into the magma chamber roughly equaled the rate at which it was being lost due to the eruption, giving evidence that this phase of volcanic activity reached equilibrium. Craters in autumn. The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull exposed residents in southern Iceland to continuous ash fall for more than 5 weeks in spring 2010. There was an extensive air travel disruption caused by the closure of airspace over many countries affecting the travel arrangements of hundreds of thousands of people in Europe and elsewhere. This photo was taken at sunrise on a Saturday morning in October, by Ólafur Sigurjónsson who lives in Forsæti III nearby and has done frequent flying across the eruptive area. Therefore, air traffic was grounded for several days. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on European Respiratory Society . The aim of the study was to evaluate the health of the exposed population compared to control population. [44] Crustal expansion continued at Þorvaldseyri for two days after the eruption began, but was slowly decreasing whilst the volcanic activity was increasing. [74][75] One previous related sequence of eruptions of this volcano, beginning in 1821 is recorded as having lasted for over two years, but no single set of major eruptions is known to have lasted more than 'several days'. MEREU et al. Overall, the Eyjafjallajökull eruption led to a booming economy, which has expanded by 10 percent since its near-bankruptcy. As of 15 April, the eruption was not large enough to have an effect on global temperatures like that of Mount Pinatubo and other major past volcanic eruptions. The initial visual report of the eruption was at 23:52 GMT, when a red cloud was observed at the volcano, lightening up the sky above the eruptive site. These two erupting fissures shared the same magma chamber, according to geophysicists. 2.5.2010. Methods: Six months after the eruption, (fall and winter 2010-11), 1148 exposed South Icelanders and 510 unexposed North Icelanders responded to a questionnaire on recent physical symptoms and questions from the European Community Respiratory Health questionnaire. Conclusion: Exposure to volcanic ash may increase respiratory morbidity symptoms six months post eruption, but long-term consequences are still unknown. No unusual seismic activity was detected at the time the new fissure appeared, nor any crustal expansion according to many seismometers and GPS recorders situated in nearby areas. This study was conducted during November 2010–March 2011, 6–9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. IVATF/4-IP/3-2-report on the eruption from the institutes in Iceland that did monitoring and research on the eruption. The effects of the eruption were recorded in various places in Europe up to the present day. [64] In Scotland, the number of phone calls to health services for respiratory and eye irritation did not rise significantly. Eyjafjallajökull had shown similar signs of stirring in 1994 and 1999. The eruption continued through at least March 26th, and may continue for several more months. Ash ejection from this phase of the eruption was small, rising to no more than 4 km (2.5 mi) into the atmosphere. The London Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC),[15] part of the UK Met Office, was responsible for forecasting the presence of volcanic ash in the north-east Atlantic. In early January 2010, the rate of deformation and the number of earthquakes began to increase. In the early phases of the eruption, fine-grained ash was ejected up to 10 km into the atmosphere, disturbing air traffic in Europe for days. This study was conducted during November 2010–March 2011, 6–9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. (First eruption on 20 March 2010). This study was conducted during November 2010-March 2011, 6-9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. The Institute of Earth Sciences[60] made a preliminary estimate of erupted material in the first three days of the eruption on 14 April 2010 at Eyjafjallajökull. c) Describe the Lava flow produced by the eruption. 2.5.2010. The recent eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in southern Iceland first began as a 500 m long fissure on 20 March 2010. b) What type of Volcano is Eyjafjallajökull? About 30 minutes played in 18 seconds. This was 10–20 times the average discharge rate in the preceding flank eruption at Fimmvörðuháls. The second phase was estimated to be a VEI 4 eruption, which was large, but not nearly the most powerful eruption possible by volcanic standards. Aim: Volcanic eruptions and other natural disasters may affect survivor's physical and mental health. An ash-loaded eruption plume rose to more than 8 km (5.0 mi), deflected to the east by westerly winds. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano was characterized by pulsating activity. Vodafone and the Icelandic telecommunications company Míla installed webcams, giving views of the eruption from Valahnúkur, Hvolsvöllur, and Þórólfsfell. The first phase of the eruption lasted from 20 March to 12 April 2010 and was characterised by olivine basaltic andesite lava flowing from various eruptive vents on the flanks of the mountain. The eruption was preceded by intense seismicity and high rates of deformation in the weeks before the eruption, in association with magma recharging of the volcano. PARTICIPANTS: Adult (18-80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). *** PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR EARLIER UPDATES *** May 24. 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